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Ann Cale Kruger

Associate Professor

Ph.D., Emory University, 1988
M.A., Emory University, 1985
B.A., Florida State University, 1976


Development of social cognition
Wellbeing in adolescent girls
Arts education
Discourse analysis


Ann Cale Kruger is a developmental psychologist whose research investigates the functions of discourse, relationships, and thought in the development of cultural knowledge. She has published in journals such as Child Development, Social Development, Developmental Psychology, Human Nature, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Journal of Child Language, Visual Arts Research, Journal of Educational Research, and Behavioral and Brain Sciences and has presented her research at professional conferences around the world. Kruger recently completed seven years of federally funded research investigating changes in language development and academic achievement in children who experience teaching that integrates drama into the language arts curriculum. Kruger also is a member of the research faculty in the GSU Center for Research on School Safety where she directs Project PREVENT, an intervention to promote the psychological health of Atlanta school children most at risk of commercial sexual exploitation.


Kruger, A.C., Harper, E, Harris, P., Sanders, D., Levin, K., & Meyers, J. (2013). Sexualized and dangerous relationships: Listening to the voices of low-income African American girls placed at risk for sexual exploitation. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 14 (4), 370-376. DOI 10.5811/westjem.2013.2.16195.

Kruger, A.C. (2011). Communion and culture. In S. R. Garrels (Ed.), Mimesis and science: Empirical research on imitation and the mimetic theory of culture and religion. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.

Kruger, A.C., & Konner, M. (2010). Who responds to crying? Maternal care and allocare among the !Kung. Human Nature, 21, 309-329.

Love, A., & Kruger, A.C. (2005). Teacher beliefs and student achievement in urban schools serving African American students. Journal of Educational Research, 99, 87-98.

Kapsch, L.A., & Kruger, A.C. (2004). Changes in children’s figure drawing following kinesthetic experience. Visual Arts Research, 30, 62-74.

Kruger, A.C., & Tomasello, M. (1996). Cultural learning and learning culture. In D.R. Olson & N. Torrance (Eds.), Handbook of education and human development: New models of learning, teaching, and schooling (pp. 369-387). Cambridge: Blackwell.

Kruger, A.C. (1993). Peer collaboration: Conflict, cooperation, or both? Social Development, 2, 165-182.

Tomasello, M., Kruger, A.C., & Ratner, H.H. (1993). Cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 495-552.

Kruger, A.C. (1992). The effect of peer and adult-child transactive discussions on moral reasoning. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 38, 191-211.

Kruger, A.C., & Tomasello, M. (1986). Transactive discussions with peers and adults. Developmental Psychology, 22, 681-685.